EconFact 3/29 – Let them them fail

http://www.npr.org/blogs/money/2013/10/10/230914894/what-a-u-s-default-would-mean-for-pensions-china-and-social-security

What bond looks like

The other big story in the Emerging Market (EM) world aside from the conflict in Ukraine/Russian conflict is the changing nature of the Chinese economy. The 2013 3rd Plenum, a meeting of Communist Party’s Central Committee, seemed to suggest a more market-driven philosophy to guiding China’s economy moving forward having massive consequences for China going forward.

This week, I’ll be focusing on China.

Why a default may be a good thing

On March 7th, something remarkable happened in the Chinese corporate bond market (I know, it sounds awesomely interesting, right?) – a Chinese corporate bond failed for the first time in history.

Just a quick rehash, a bond is basically an “I-O-U”  from a company to an investor. Investopedia does a great job explaining it:

The indebted entity (issuer) issues a bond that states the interest rate(coupon) that will be paid and when the loaned funds (bond principal) are to be returned (maturity date). Interest on bonds is usually paid every six months (semi-annually). 

The bolded words are my emphasis. Reason why I included that explanation is that when I say ” a corporate bond failed” I mean that a Chinese corporation, in this case a Shanghai based solar panel company named Shanghai Chaori Solar, did not pay back its interest payments, around $15 million USD, at a previously agreed upon date implying that the company does not have enough funds to do so. In other words, they defaulted.

Now, since China started its bond market in the 1990s, there have been some technical defaults among Chinese corporations, meaning that the interests payments have been made but some other clause of the bond contract was not upheld (to be fair, the United States has technically defaulted as well BUT NOT CANADA).

China’s somewhat default-free debt market is not due to all of the companies being financially responsible but rather a lot of them being bailed out by the Chinese Central Government before defaulting. Thus, March 7’s Chaori serves as a warning shot to Chinese corporations to get their fiscal house in order because they may not be bailed out anymore. In fact, China’s premier Li Keqiang warned that this may be the year corporate defaults as China ramps up its financial regulation. Indeed, this is a warning instead of a disaster since the Chinese government has noted defaults will be “controlled” in order to prevent systemic banking risk.

Going forward, this is just another part of China’s effort to “liberalize” its economy by letting the market, rather than government intervention, determine the credit-worthiness of Chinese corporations.

Read more:
Forbes – Some of the implications of China restructuring its corporate bond market.

Also:
Los Angeles Review of Books – A great analysis on how HBO’s Girls treats work.

EconFact 3/28 – “Free” Trade Zones

http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304795804579100640245613408

The other big story in the Emerging Market (EM) world aside from the conflict in Ukraine/Russian conflict is the changing nature of the Chinese economy. The 2013 3rd Plenum, a meeting of Communist Party’s Central Committee, seemed to suggest a more market-driven philosophy to guiding China’s economy moving forward having massive consequences for China going forward.

This week, I’ll be focusing on China.

Trying Capitalism 

In the expanse of Shanghai, a bastion of capitalism lives not. No, not the American embassy but an Free Trade Zone (FTZ) – a 29 km^2 (11 miles^2 for you heathens) area set up in September 2013 where corporations can conduct business and not be under the normal regulations that the Chinese Central Government usually enforces.

The zone is viewed as a testing ground for greater financial liberalization as the country adopts a more market-friendly approach to its economy.

This ranges from interest-rate liberalization, or banks can pay whatever interest rate they want for deposits (capped at $500,000), zero-tariff policy on imports/exports, allowing the sale of video game consoles (!) which were banned in China since 2000, as well as tax-exempt status for businesses for 10 years.

There are a couple of places in China where “Special Economic Zones” exist (the most well known in Shenzhen) but Free-Trade Zone in Shanghai is especially remarkable because it is seen as a model to be replicated throughout China and really is a “testing ground” for future reforms.

Read More:

China Briefing’s excellent summary of the features of Shanghai’s FTZ

Also:

There’s nothing like proving Louis CK wrong.
We’ve seen Christian Bale play a billionaire, but can he play Steve Jobs?

EconFact 3/21 – RMB FX WTF?

Uh Oh

Uh Oh

The other big story in the Emerging Market (EM) world aside from the conflict in Ukraine/Russian conflict is the changing nature of the Chinese economy. The 2013 3rd Plenum, a meeting of Communist Party’s Central Committee, seemed to suggest a more market-driven philosophy to guiding China’s economy moving forward having massive consequences for China going forward. This week, I’ll be focusing on China.

So far, like other aspects of the Chinese economy, the RMB, has been state-controlled. China’s currency has been pegged to the US dollar at roughly 8 RMB to the dollar. Since exports are a large party of the Chinese economy – this matters greatly; a cheaper RMB (also known as Yuan/CNY) means cheaper, more competitive exports. However, currencies tend to appreciate with more exports, that is, with more Chinese exports in the global market, they should rise in price but the Chinese government has kept the currency artificially low by acquiring foreign reserves and thus masking the market value of the RMB for some time.

In 2005, under pressure from trading partners, China moved to a “managed float” system where the currency was allowed to have more volatile appreciation and the currency moved from 8 – 6.8 RMB/Dollar. The Chinese government stabilized the currency in 2008 due to the financial crisis but resumed appreciation trend in June 2010. During those times, daily volatility of the currency was limited at 0.5% per day.

In 2012 daily volatility moved to 1% and now it’s announced that 2% band for the RMB is possible. This is seen as a move to internationalize the RMB and for it to move closer to its market price. This move has already seen making a huge impact in the FX market (see chart).

EconFact 3/20: Slowing Dragon

 

20140320-093048.jpg

The other big story in the Emerging Market (EM) world aside from the conflict in Ukraine/Russian conflict is the changing nature of the Chinese economy. The 2013 3rd Plenum, a meeting of Communist Party’s Central Committee, seemed to suggest a more market-driven philosophy to guiding China’s economy moving forward having massive consequences for China going forward.

This week, I’ll be focusing on China.

Slower, but more more stable growth

It’s not secret that China is slowing down. The average annual year-over-year GDP growth over the last 30 years has been around 10.14% but the last few years have seen a downward GDP trend. The most recent annual GDP number is 7.7% for 2012 and the finance officials forecast an even lower projection of 7.5% GDP growth for 2014. The PMI Manufacturing Index and Industrial Production numbers for China has so far disappointment in 2014.

But a lower GDP may be a good thing for China.

Growth in China has been so far been credit-fueled and investment-ledmeaning that you have entities borrowing from investors to fund projects, especially property developments. However, this frenzy in simply building things with borrowed money can lead to the misallocation of capital personified by the rise ghost cities.

Investment has been a crucial, but unsustainable part of growth because it incurs debt: provincial government debt and the increase of shadow-banking, unregulated, off-balance sheet banking interactions. While providing additional liquidity, a lack of regulation and transparency threatens the stability of the overall financial system.  So far, the central government has taken action in auditing provincial government financial activity but it’s unclear how much transparency there will be going forward.

A transition to a more consumer-led growth will provide a stable and fundamentally-led growth for the economy but probably not result in double-digit growth numbers we’re used to from China.